Dr. Erin Hurley Reflects on English-Language Theatre in Quebec from 1930 to 2015

PWM Interview with Dr. Erin Hurley

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By Harris Frost

Dr. Erin Hurley is a professor in McGill University’s department of English whose areas of research include contemporary theatre, performance theory, and Québecois theatre. She is currently collaborating with PWM on a research project on English-language theatre in Quebec. She sat down with us in July to discuss this project and its outcomes.

PWM: Could you talk a little about this project you’re working on right now?

Dr. Hurley: The project as a whole is a five-year research project in which I’m trying to document and analyze the history of English Language Theatre in Quebec [ELTQ]. We’re starting in 1930 and it’s running until about 2015. I’m seeking to understand English-Language theatre as sector and as an entity in relation to the dominant French-language theatre sector in Quebec and also to nationally-dominant English-language theatre sector in Canada. So, where does this quirky minority language set of theatrical and dramatic practices fit in with these two other enveloping concerns?

With PWM, we’re reading all the plays that we can find that were written by English-language Quebecers or people in Quebec writing plays in English. Obviously PWM has been a major repository for those scripts. Right now, we’re creating the corpus, if you will, by gathering all these scripts. And the next step will be to read those scripts, make summaries of them, and make selections for two festivals of staged public readings, with professional actors, that we’ll be doing at McGill. Playwright and translator, Alexis Diamond, who is the literary manager of the festival is working with dramaturg and scholar, Alison Bowie, and myself to curate these plays. We’ve yet to determine all of the parameters of these festivals, but the idea is that each evening will feature one or two works from a given decade.

PWM: Why did you choose to work on this project with PWM?

Dr. Hurley: Well, PWM started out in 1963 as a space for local English-language playwrights to develop and showcase their work. So, we’re capitalizing on the fact that many early scripts, many of which are unpublished and some of which are unproduced, still exist either in PWM’s Carol Libman library or in their off-site archives at University of Guelph.

And the other way that PWM fits into this is in terms of selecting these plays for the festival. Emma Tibaldo, PWM’s Artistic Director, is directing us towards things that we might find interesting in the Carol Libman library or towards things that are important in the history of Quebec theatre in English. Emma will also be helping us find professional actors and directors for these public readings.

PWM: How are you going about choosing the scripts that you select for the readings? What criteria are you using?

Dr. Hurley: To be determined, haha! The first thing would be interest. Is it formally innovative? Is it about something that we don’t hear a lot about? Also, plays that are somehow representative of their moment. Since we’re organizing plays by decade at the moment, we might look for a play that makes us say “Ah! This play is very 1935.”

Another thing we’re looking for is lost gems, if you will, plays that haven’t seen the light of day, either in the form of production or publication. And we’re looking for a diversity of perspectives, not only across time, but also in terms of who is writing these plays and what the playwright is doing formally. We want a good mix, aesthetically and in terms of authors and periods.

PWM: In a recent essay of yours on ELTQ, you reference the Quebec Drama Federation’s 1991 assessment that there is “nothing distinct” about ELTQ. Do you see this project as a way of refuting that assessment?

Dr. Hurley: Well, I would like to think that there are a set of defining characteristics. I don’t know that that’s true yet. I do think that the idea of the ELTQ scene as being ill-defined arises out of that majority/minority dynamic that’s inherent in the field. So with this project, even if we can’t define ELTQ with three specific characteristics or whatever, we’ll at least know a bit more about it.

If we have a sense of the history of practice, of the people who were important in that practice, of what kinds of spaces it took place in, if we have a sense of what is then we can increase its legibility. Visibility too, we do have a somewhat activist hope around this project to help define a sector that is ill-defined and in so doing, make it a little more prominent in the public space.

The series of staged readings is expected begin in the 2019-2020 academic year and will conclude during the 2020-2021 academic year. They will be held at Moyse Hall Theatre and will be free and open to the public.

Looking Back at the 2018 Glassco Translation Residency in Tadoussac

By Bobby Theodore
Translation dramaturg and host of the Glassco Translation Residency

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Much like the bees in the burgeoning flower garden outside Fletcher Cottage, this year’s residency featured a tremendous amount of cross-pollination as we welcomed playwrights and translators from Innu, Queer Pakistani-Canadian Muslim, Tamil Canadian, French-speaking Quebecois, English-speaking Quebecois, and Argentinian communities. The plays in translation dealt with the aftermath of the Sri Lankan Civil War, the perversion of contemporary art by corporate interests, the intersection of queerness and Islamic identity, and how to talk about life to toddlers. Conversations are always inspiring and exciting in Tadoussac, but there was an essential shift this year that provoked new exchanges which will likely reverberate for years to come.

Innu translator Joséphine Bacon kicked off the residency with a deeply moving, in-depth acknowledgment of the unceded land that Fletcher Cottage was built upon. It was a true gift to hear her speak about Tadoussac, her Nation, and its historical ties to the Saguenay and North Shore. She came to Tadoussac to work on residency veteran Jasmine Dubé’s Marguerite. Marguerite is a choral play which tells the entire life story of one woman, from her birth until her death. A poetic piece that flows like a river, Jasmine set out to write this play after she was inspired to create theatre for toddlers. With Marguerite, she shares her love of language and playfulness through straightforward and evocative storytelling. After performing this work in French for 10 years, Jasmine decided she wanted to try and tour it to smaller communities in Northern Quebec. After she approached Joséphine about translating the play, they both agreed it would be a wonderful opportunity for the Innu-aimun language to be reinforced and for toddlers (and even their parents) to learn the language through a theatrical experience, surrounded by other babies and their parents. The main challenge Joséphine faced was that Innu-aimun has far fewer words than French. So, on occasion, she needed to use several words to describe one French word when there was no Innu-aimun equivalent. It was wonderful to see Jasmine and Joséphine forge a deep bond at the Residency, even though they’d never met before. Jasmine took advantage of Joséphine’s presence to advance her soon-to-be produced play for adults (a first!) Lascaux, even cutting out a central part of story she felt she’d appropriated from an indigenous myth.

First-time resident Alexis Martin came to Tadoussac to work with playwright Michael Mackenzie on a translation of Art Object, Michael’s sequel to Instructions for a Socialist Government Looking to Abolish Christmas, also translated by Alexis. Art Object, slated to premiere at Théâtre d’Aujourd’hui in 2020, is a play that satirises the often amoral and complex relationship between high art and high finance. In his translation of the play, Alexis drew upon his prior knowledge of Michael’s characters and universe, as well as his acting experience. During the residency, Alexis spoke about his need to find the “breath” inside each translation he works on. Until he finds its breath, until the text is playable, he isn’t satisfied with his work. He uses a more liberal and creative approach to theatre translation, something he executes with Michael’s enthusiastic blessing. Each day, the two old friends and collaborators would go for long hikes during which Alexis would ask all the questions he’d accumulate over his morning work session. Later in the residency, when Argentinian translator Jaime Arrambide arrived to work on his Latin American Spanish version Michael’s Instructions to Any Future Government Wishing to Abolish Christmas, all three artists exchanged tactics and ideas to improve the translations. During the residency, Jaime fell in love with Art Object and now feels compelled to translate that play too. Jaime spoke to us about the vibrant theatre scene in Buenos Aires as well as the challenges of getting translated work staged there. While both Alexis and Jaime were working on their translations, Michael advanced his numerous writing projects.

Dushy Gnanapragasam came to translate Suvendrini Lena’s play The Enchanted Loom into Tamil. The Enchanted Loom is a haunting drama about a Tamil Canadian family dealing with trauma in the aftermath of the Sri Lankan civil war. The multiple levels of language in the play presented a big challenge for Dushy since Suvendrini’s writing is equally poetic, lyrical, and medical, with Tamil influences. This team had been working on this translation for the past 3 years but the Residency was the first time they were able to spend dedicated time to the process. While working with Dushy in Tadoussac, Suvendrini discovered there were elements of the play, her first script, which she wanted to rewrite or cut. This often happens in Tadoussac as the translation process provides a means to improve upon original work through the lens of translation. Once they completed the Tamil version, Suvendrini and Dushy worked day and night on a new bilingual (Tamil/English) version of the play, rushing to get it done before they returned to their busy lives. During her stay at Fletcher Cottage, Suvendrini often repeated how this was the version of the play she’d “always dreamed of” creating. Though The Enchanted Loom will premiere in Toronto in Tamil in the next year or so, it’s often difficult to find the means and time to translate theatre for communities that aren’t part of the so-called dominant culture. During our late-afternoon discussions, we spoke about looking beyond English – French translation in this country in order to address the needs of the many communities who want to hear and see themselves on stage.

This year Olivier Sylvestre returned to Tadoussac as a translator to work with Bilal Baig on his play Acha Bacha. Bilal wrote Acha Bacha to speak specifically to Queer Muslim Pakistanis, so translating this play into French for a Quebecois audience posed several challenges. Acha Bacha is about a Queer Muslim Pakistani living in Mississauga (a large suburb of Toronto) who’s haunted by a traumatic memory the day before his lover leaves on a pilgrimage to the Middle East. Olivier thought about transposing this story to Montreal but expressed his concerns about this choice. His inquiry created an opportunity for some wonderful and lively discussion during our end-of-day meetings. How does a Queer Muslim Pakistani Canadian speak in French? Do they just sound Quebecois using, as Olivier put it, “ma langue”? Olivier explained how there aren’t many French-language Quebecois plays set in South Asian communities, let alone about the Queer Muslim Pakistani experience – which is what inspired him to translate this play. After listening to the group’s advice and his gut, Olivier decided to keep the play in Toronto as well as all the Urdu that’s spoken in the play. Olivier realized he needed to be sensitive to Bilal’s intentions and not simply translate the play to make it palatable for a French-speaking Québecois audience. He had to find a way maintain cultural specificity while keeping his audience engaged with material that may be unfamiliar to them. No small feat. By the end of the residency, Bilal seemed incredibly honored to have gone through this process and trusted that his first play was in Olivier’s expert hands – a clear result of their sustained proximity at Fletcher Cottage.

Like every year, it’s challenging to summarize everything that happened during this year’s residency. There are intangibles: the increased confidence residents gain over their time at the residency; the new creative relationships that are made; the validation they all feel; the significant moments of creative birth/rebirth… There were also bracing noon swims (in honor of Bill who swam every day), a trip to Cap de Bon Désir with no whales in sight, spicy debates about cultural appropriation, and – depending on which room you walked into – a constant stream of Tamil, Innu-aimun, French, Spanish, Urdu, or English. As always, Briony Glassco’s welcoming and joyous presence helped set the positive tone of our wonderful 10-day stay at her family’s magical home.

(L to R) Michael Mackenzie, Dushy Gnanapragasam, Bilal Baig, Jasmine Dubé, Joséphine Bacon, Suvendrini Lena, Alexis Martin, and Olivier Sylvestre (Not pictured: Jaime Arrambide)

PWM would like to thank the Cole Foundation and the Friends & Family of Bill Glassco for making this residency possible.

Marcus Youssef discusses his New Play for Young Audiences

Marcus Youssef

By Harris Frost

Acclaimed Canadian Playwright and 2017 Siminovitch Prize winner Marcus Youssef is currently workshopping a new play for young audiences entitled The In-Between with Geordie Theatre in collaboration with Playwrights’ Workshop Montréal. He kindly sat down with us to discuss his new play, his writing process, and how his work engages with hot-button issues (although he’d prefer you didn’t call them that).


PWM: Fist of all, congratulations on winning the Siminovitch Prize. So far, has this win affected your writing habits or the types of projects you gravitate towards?

Marcus Youssef: Well, the projects I have lined up have been lined up for a while. So I guess there hasn’t been any direct change. I feel fortunate in some ways that I’ve been really busy, and was going to be busy anyway. Because I haven’t had too much time to really think about it. I haven’t gone “Oh my god! Now I have to radically rethink everything I do!” Because I think that would ultimately be a mistake. I mean, there’s no question that it’s given me a kind of confidence to pursue some things that I’m thinking about.

PWM: Broadly, what do you think is the role of theatre today?

Marcus Youssef: For me personally, the importance of performance or theatre has to do with the fact that we’re, as people often say, all in a room together. And the aspect of that that feels particularly critical for me at this time is the much-discussed migration of human communication onto screens which, you know, produces exciting benefits of course. At the same time it often leaves me feeling like I’m hungering for connection that’s physical, that involves my body in the presence of other bodies.

And as someone who was raised by secular parents who disavowed their parents’ religion like so many people of my generation in kind of intelligentsia culture or whatever, I do very much feel like theatre is a place of communion for me. That’s related to being in each other’s presence and for me it’s also about it being a place where we can go to experience artists contending with some of the fundamental unknowables of being alive, of being in a society or of being a human.

PWM: The play you’re working on right now is aimed at a teenage audience, what specifically would you say is the importance of theatre to young people

Marcus Youssef: I’m interested in writing work that speaks to young people’s experience. It’s often located in schools. Because kids are compelled to be in schools, legally. So the fact that they spend most of their public time in a place where they are legally required to be, that’s a really fundamental condition. It feels to me like in addition to all their peer relations, schools are places where young people learn about systems, about power, about institutions about bureaucracy and a whole host of other things that are very important to our lives even though they’re not super fun to talk about.

Also, I think I write about schools because most of them are public institutions and public institutions are very important. They’re fundamentally important to the kind of world I want to live in. They are places, unlike many, where everybody is. And as you get older, you get very good at narrowing your social circle to people are like you and agree with you and make you feel good about being you. That’s not what happens in schools. And that’s a really important public function. It’s also really complicated. And that feels like a really rich area of exploration to me.

PWM: What are the major differences in your writing process when you’re writing for adults vs. when you’re writing for younger audiences? In the latter case, are you more likely to start with an “issue” that you want to tackle?

Marcus Youssef: To me the fundamental difference is that, because of the way my writing for teenagers is disseminated – it’s sold to high schools and goes into high schools – to me, the style and genre is already set. So this work is actually more traditional than much of the work I make, which is often much more experimental. These feel more like plays than a lot of my work.

In terms of writing for them, I don’t think the process is very different from the process that I  usually employ. I have a question I want to explore or I’ll hit on characters or some sort of conflict. All my work deals with what some people might call issues. And I resist the use of that word because I feel that it’s sometimes unconsciously used as a way of compartmentalizing and making safe what is actually a site of real contention and conflict. And that’s how I would generally describe it, as work that’s about a site of real contention and conflict.

What I love about writing for teenagers and writing work that goes into schools is that it forces me not to be nihilistic. There has to be hope in the work. You can’t leave a bunch of young people going “it’s all fucked, we’re all fucked.” That’s just wouldn’t be fair. Some of my other work is a bit dark so I actually really like the challenge of going: “No, this is not going to end bleakly. It just can’t.” And I really like that, it’s informed my other work.

Another thing I like about writing for teenages is that I’m going to be held to a very clear standard. If they don’t like it, they won’t pay attention, they will undermine it, they will heckle, they will make it clear that it’s not working. I find being held to that standard useful.

PWM: And because this show will be touring schools, in most cases the audience is not electing to see the show, it’s just being put in front of them.

Marcus Youssef: Yeah, I think I’m always considering the fact that half or more of the audience will be coming in having no idea what they’re going to see and with a very legitimate reason to not want to engage with it at all. Then it becomes my job to acknowledge that somehow in the writing and also to offer some reasons why it might be worth engaging with. And actually, I should do that more in my other work. Because what that implies is a deep respect for my audience and I think that’s really important.

PWM: And do you find it difficult navigate these (for lack of a better word) issues without coming off as didactic?

Marcus Youssef: If there’s one thing I think I’m pretty good at, it’s that. It’s figuring out ways to get inside contentious social or personal questions, and to do that in a way that is not didactic. And really that just means being willing to surrender having the right answer. The word “issue” gets employed when authority has decided that they know the correct response and the correct behaviour. A point of contention is experienced by multiple people with multiple perspectives any one of which has legitimate and illegitimate reasons behind it. And to me that’s what it’s about, recognizing the complexity behind anybody’s experience of a point of contention.

And then humour. Humour is a way of manifesting complexity in a way that allows us to experience a moment of relief and recognition at the fundamental irresolvability of the conflicts that we have in our lives. Cause that’s the illusion, right? The illusion is peddled that if we just figure out all the answers, then everything will be perfect. And it’s art’s function I would say to hold a mirror up to that lie.

PWM: How much do your plays tend to change from the first table read to the final performance?

Marcus Youssef: Oh, a lot. I’m a writer who likes to work collaboratively. At the first table read we did with this play I brought what I called a first draft. But it wasn’t really a first draft, it was really just collections of scenes and scene fragments. They rarely have a throughline. The plot is something that evolves over time. For me, that almost always happens in workshops and almost always when working with Emma Tibaldo because she’s extremely good at plot.

PWM: And you’ve worked with Playwrights’ Workshop Montréal a few times before, correct?

Marcus Youssef: Yeah, I think is my third time working with PWM. And Emma is a dramaturg I deeply respect and admire so much. When I was dramaturging a piece out West that my company was commissioned and I asked her to send me her bullet notes to being a good dramaturg. And they were five of the smartest, clearest instructions that I could imagine. Things like “Don’t settle on what you think until the third read.” Just really practical and excellent suggestions.

A place like PWM has been a tremendously important resource to me. Besides all the terrific people who work here, it’s important to have another voice in the room that’s the writer’s and that’s not the commissioner. These have been among my most successful commissions.

I often find as the writer that I get as much from the commissioner and the dramaturg disagreeing as I do when they agree. Because it’s all conflict, right? It’s all about how conflict manifests because drama is conflict, essentially. And in a way, they’re unconsciously representing the conflict that exists in the play.

The other part of play development centers that’s really important is the resources that they put into the development of new work. That’s critical a to playwright like me. I wouldn’t be flying out here if it wasn’t for PWM and this just wouldn’t be happening.


The In-Between will tour High Schools and CEGEPs across the province as a part of Geordie Theatre’s 2018-2019 season. The scripts for Peter Panties and King Arthur’s Night, both co-written with Niall McNeil, will be published this month. The latter show is also being prepped for an international tour. Marcus is currently writing Theatre Replacement’s annual Christmas Pantomime show. Jabber, another Geordie production developed with PWM, is touring Saskatchewan with the Persephone Theatre next year. The show is also being produced in German at the Grips Theatre in Berlin in the Fall.

Social Justice as an Engine for Theatrical Creation

Exploring Practice with Donna-Michelle St. Bernard

Now accepting applications for our next training session with Donna-Michelle St. Bernard

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Dates: May 17-20, 2018
Time: 6PM – 7:30PM 17th, 10-6 PM 18th-19th, 10-2 PM 20th
Location: Monument-National
Fee: $45 (Fee is not a barrier to anyone who might be interested/eligible)

A story is a world; a storyteller is a world maker. Your politic is unavoidably in the work, and yet a play is not a polemic. Explore ways to center your story without sidelining your values. Underpin artistic incursions into social justice through inclusive practice and thoughtful process. Consider intentional displacement, diverse cosmologies, universality through specificity, coding for class, introduced vocabularies.

Application guideline: To apply for this training, please submit a bio and CV, and a short (1-2 paragraph) statement explaining why this subject interest you, or how anti-oppression work has informed your practice.
Please send applications to emma@playwrights.ca
Subject line: Exploring practice with Donna-Michelle St. Bernard
Application deadline: April 30, 2018

Note: This Exploring Practice is being offered in tandem with the MontreALL Diverse City Commons. Workshop participants will attend the Commons as appropriate.


Donna-Michelle St. Bernard is an emcee, playwright and agitator. Notable works for the stage include Sound of the Beast, Cake, They Say He Fell, A Man A Fish, The House You Build, Dark Love, The First Stone, Roominhouse, Salome’s Clothes, and Gas Girls. Donna-Michelle’s work has been recognized with a SATAward nomination, the Herman Voaden Playwriting Award, the Enbridge playRites Award, a Dora Mavor Moore Award for Outstanding New Play, and nominations for the Governor General’s Literary Award, the Siminovitch Prize and the KM Hunter Award. Donna-Michelle is Artistic Director of New Harlem Productions, Coordinator of the ADHOC Assembly, playwright in residence at lemonTree creations and emcee in residence at Theatre Passe Muraille.

Training made possible by





The Cole Competition for Emerging Translators

Lire l’article en français : Le concours de la Fondation Cole pour les traducteurs émergents

Since its inception in 2013, the Cole Foundation Mentorship for Emerging Translators (formerly Cole Competition for Emerging Translators) has been mentoring the next generation of translators from French to English. PWM, with the expert guidance of acclaimed translator Maureen Labonté and in partnership with the Cole Foundation has built a program that mentors emerging translators through every stage of the translation process. The competition awards the selected translators a $1000 honorarium and an eight month mentorship with Maureen Labonté. This program has ushered in an exciting ongoing discussion on the challenges and rewards of translating work for the stage.

In 2017 two projects were selected: Translator John Jack Paterson has been working on well-known Quebec playwright, Daniel Danis’ TYA play (12 and up), Kiwi. There will be a reading on March 29th at 7PM in PWM’s Studio and in Vancouver in June 2018. Translator Jennie Herbin is working on Catherine Chabot’s Table rase which was a huge hit here in Montreal and on tour. There is an English production in the works for 2018.

Playwright and librettist, Alexis Diamond, was the first winner of the Cole competition for Emerging Translators in 2013. She translated Marie-Claude Verdier’s Je n’y suis plus. I’m Not Here was selected to be part of the 2016 SummerWorks Performance Festival in Toronto, the Voilà Festival in the United Kingdom and had a run here in Montreal at Salle Fred-Barry. Alexis has gone on to translate Pascal Bruellmans, TYA play Vipérine / Amaryllis, Pascale St-Onge‘s play, Tarmac, for the National Theatre School and has contributed to translations for Cirque du Soleil’s latest touring show written by Olivier Kemeid among others.

Well-known Montreal theatre artist, Johanna Nutter, was awarded the 2014 Cole Prize. She translated Chlore, by Nicolas Michon and Florence Longpré. The translation, Chlorine, was produced by Johanna’s theatre company, creature/creature, at Centaur Theatre in October 2016 as part of Centaur’s Brave New Look series. Johanna Nutter has recently been chosen to be part of the new CEAD-PWM Formation en traduction program. She will be working on texts by Guillaume Corbeil and Annick Lefebvre.

The Baklawa Recipe by Pascale Rafie directed by PWM Artistic Director, Emma Tibaldo, premiered at the Centaur Theatre in January 2018. It was translated by Melissa Bull, the recipient of the 2015 Cole Foundation Competition for Emerging Translators. Melissa is a writer, poet and editor. She has translated prose work by Fanny Arcand, Kim Thuy and Marie-Sissi Labrèche. Her first novel will be published this spring at Anvil press. She is already working on her second translation for the stage, the award-winning Québécois play, J’accuse by Annick Lefebvre.

Jordan Arsenault was the 2016 recipient of the Cole Foundation Prize. He translated Eric Noel’s Faire des enfants. His translation, River Bed, was given a public reading at Playwrights’ Workshop Montréal in November 2017. There has been interest in the play from theatres in Toronto. Jordan is doing a Masters in Translation at McGill University.


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